Linux vs Windows vs Mac OS!. 10 reasons why Linux is the winner of the day

AMONTECH πŸ–₯️

The definition of an ‘operating system’ is bound to evolve with customer demands and technological possibilities.

Virginia Postrel

Operating system

An operating system is system software program that coordinates the operations of computer hardware and software.

The operating system acts as a bridge for the interface between the user and machine.

The following are the most popular operating systems

  • Linux
  • Windows
  • Mac OS
  • Apple’s iOS.
  • Android.
  • Solaris.
  • Free BSD.
  • Chrome OS.
  • CentOS.
  • Fedora.

In today’s post, we’re only going to talk about the 3 most popular computer operating systems namely, Linux, Windows and Mac OS simply because they’re the most powerful systems commonly available and they power 99% of the  computing devices.

Table of contents

  1. Linux
  2. Windows
  3. MacOS
  4. Why Linux is better
  5. Conclusion

Linux

Linux 🐧

I do get my pizzas paid for by Linux indirectly.

Linus Torvalds

Linux is an open-source Unix-like operating system based on the Linux kernel. It was first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.

Linux operating system comprises of;

Bootloader – This is software that manages the boot process of your computer.


Kernel – This is the core of the operating system and manages the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices.

Graphical server – This is the sub-system that displays the graphics on your monitor. Each desktop environment includes built-in applications (such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, and games).


Applications – These are computer program designed to carry out specific tasks other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, . Most modern Linux distributions have platforms from which you can download computer applications.


Init system – this is the first process started during booting of the computer system. Init is a daemon process that continues running until the system is shut down.


Daemons – a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user(printing, sound, scheduling, etc.) that either start up during boot or after you log into the desktop.

Linux advantages
1. Linux is an open Source software. This means its source code is easily available for everyone. Anyone capable of coding can contribute, modify, enhance and distribute the code to anyone and for any purpose.
2. Linux is more secure in comparison to other operating systems such as Windows.
3. Linux is easy to customize, i.e you can add or delete any feature according to your need since it is an open source O.S. 4. Linux is freely available for download on the internet . You don’t need to have any license for it since it’s free.
5. Linux is More stable and rarely freezes or require a warm boot.
6. Linux ensures the privacy of user’s data. This is so because it never collects much data from the user while using its distributions or software.
7. Linux is compatible with a large number of file formats.
8. Linux is a multitasking operating system. This is so because it can perform many tasks at the same time without slowing down in it’s performance.
9. Linux is easy to install. This is because it can easily be found and installed from the web without any license requirements.
10 Linux provides high performance on various networks and workstations. It can allow many users to work simultaneously  
linux advantages over other O. S

Windows

Microsoft windows O.S

Microsoft is not about greed. It’s about innovation and fairness.

Bill Gates

Microsoft Windows is a graphical User Interface kind of operating system developed and published by Microsoft. It provides a way to store files, run software, play games, watch videos, and connect to the Internet.

This software was first introduced with version 1.0 on November 10, 1983 under Microsoft Corporation founded by Bill Gates with his friend Paul Allen.

Microsoft since then has gone ahead to release the following versions of windows

  • Windows 1 and it’s subsequent versions
  • Windows 2 and it’s subsequent versions
  • Windows 3 and it’s subsequent versions
  • Windows 95
  • Windows NT 4
  • Windows 98
  • Windows 98 second version
  • Windows 2000
  • Windows me
  • Windows XP
  • Windows Vista
  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8 and it’s subsequent versions
  • Windows 10 and it’s subsequent versions
  • Windows 11

The following are the parts of windows O S

Title Bar: It is a horizontal Bar at the top of the window. 


Frame: This surrounds the window, when you point the mouse to one of the edges or corners.


Taskbar: It shows which programs are currently running.


My computer button: This appears at the bottom left corner of the window and it helps one to get access to all hidden apps


Control Menu: Each window has a control menu, at the left hand top corner, which contain commands for manipulating the Window. i.e. moving, resizing, maximize, minimize etc.
Menu Bar: It contains the titles of pull down menus. 


Work Space: Workspace is the blank portion of a window where content can be viewed


Scroll Bars: These scroll bars enables scrolling the contents in the workspace. Generally, there are two scroll bars to a window. A vertical scroll bar at the right hand edge of the window and a horizontal scroll bar at the button of the window. horizontally and vertically.


Restore Button: The window size can be restored to previous size by clicking restore button.


Close Button: This button is located at the right hand top corner of the window. It is in most cases an β€œX” appearing in a red box 


Recycle Bin: This acts as a temporary storage for recently deleted items before they’re permanently deleted from memory 


Control Panel: Control panel utility facilities setting up of the hardware components in the system, configuration of network, adding new hardware to the system etc.

Advantages of windows
1. Ease of use. Users familiar with previous versions of windows will find it easy to use the newest ones too

2. Available software
. It is easy to find windows for your computer but in most cases at a price. This is because it’s the most popular

3. Backwards compatibility. It is easy to transition from older versions of windows to newer ones without losing any data

4. Support for new hardware. This is because it’sthe most popular o.s, and hardware manufacturers have to put this into consideration

5. Plug & Play software. As long as the right drivers are installed, Windows will usually do a good job at recognising new hardware

6. Games. Windows support the installation of gaming softwares    
windows advantages

MacOS

Macintosh Operating System

By the way, if you get mad at your Mac laptop and wonder who designed this demonic device, notice the manufacturer’s icon on top: an apple with a bite out of it.

peter kreeft

MacOS or Macintosh Operating System is a computer operating system specifically designed for Apple desktops and laptops. It was first released on March 24, 2001 by Apple Inc.

It is a closed source software though with some open source components.

The following are the versions of MacOS sofar released

  • Mac OS 10.14: Mojave- 2018
  • MacOS 10.13: High Sierra- 2017
  • MacOS 10.12: Sierra- 2016
  • OS X 10.11: El Capitan- 2015
  • OS X 10.10: Yosemite-2014
  • OS X 10.9 Mavericks-2013
  • OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion- 2012
  • OS X 10.7 Lion- 2011
  • OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard- 2009
  • OS X 10.5 Leopard- 2007
  • Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger- 2005
  • Mac OS X 10.3 Panther- 2003
  • Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar- 2002
  • Mac OS X 10.1 Puma- 2001
  • Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah- 2001
  • Public Beta Kodiak/Cheetah- 2000

And the following are the parts of the Mac os

Core OS. The Darwin Core is based on Berkeley Software Distribution version of Unix. Mach is the main part of the Darwin core and it performs operations such as memory use, data flow from and to CPU etc.


Graphics Subsystem. It contains three main parts i.e. Quartz, OpenGL and QuickTime.


Application Subsystem. The application subsystem in Mac OS X provides the classic environment to run classic applications.


User Interface. Aqua is the user interface of Mac OS X. It provides good visual features as well as the tools to customize the user interface as per the user requirements.

Advantages of MacOS Operating System
1. Spectacular performance.
2. Very neat design.
3. Dedicated hardware and software.
4. MacOS is completely stable.
5. Higher productivity.
6. Less or no viruses
7. Mac is compatibility with Windows
advantages of Mac Os

Why Linux is better than windows & MacOS

Linux as an open source software has been considered to be a better operating system than the two more popular operating system softwares i.e windows & MacOS because of the following points.

  • It’s more secure than the others.
  • It’s a free software unlike Macintosh OS and Microsoft windows.
  • Linux users have access and control over updating their systems.
  • Better user privacy unlike with mac and windows which occasionally collect user data
  • It’s portable software
  • Task automation is possible and easy to set up in Linux
  • ……………………………………………………………………………

Conclusion

Basing on all the above collected information, Linux has proved to be a better operating system. More is coming…

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Time Travel! Is It A Possibility Or Not? All facts You Need To Know…

Time travel.

“The speed of an object through space reflects how much of its motion through time is being diverted. The faster it moves through space, the more its motion is being diverted away from moving through time, so time slows down”.

General relativity

Time travel is a concept which has been featuring extensively in fiction movies and comic books, alot of questions about the idea have been coming through, questions like; is time travel a possibility?. Have scientists invented the time machine?. Do wormholes exist?. Is time the fourth dimension?. Can someone travel to his past to correct his mistakes?. And much more, today I’m certainly going to answer most of these questions.

Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, suggest that suitable geometries of spacetime or specific types of motion in space might allow time travel into the past and future if these geometries or motions were possible. there is some theoretical basis to the idea. Arguably, we are always travelling though time, as we move from the past into the future.

Time travel concepts have been viewed in some science fiction movies and books like Avengers Endgame, The Tomorrow War, Zack Snyder’s Justice League, Interstellar, X-Men: Days of Future Past, Tenetand so much more

Spacetime travel

Table Of Contents

1. Time Travel Definitions

2. History of the concept

3. Terms Used in Time Travel

4. Time Travel theories and equations

5. Time travel, possible or not?

6. Conclusions

Time Travel Definitions

Time travel has been defined by several authors and scientists basing on the way they understand the concept.

“I can simply describe this concept as the ability of a body or particle to travel forwards into the future or backwards into the past by use of some mechanism, say a time machine. The size of the particle remaining constant”.

Amonison

“Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person, typically with the use of a hypothetical device known as a time machine”.

Wikipedia definition

Other popular definitions

“Time travel is a science fiction concept in which people are able to move backwards into the past or forwards into the future”.

Unknown author

“A journeying into the past or the future, as in science fiction”

Anonymous

History of the concept

The idea of time travel and time travel paradox stories have been in existence sice time immemorial. The idea was popularized in the 19th century at a time when novel classics such as Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy started digging deeper into the idea.

However, The first real work to envisage travelling in time was The ,The Time Machine Book by H. G. Wells, which was published in 1895. 

The book tells the story of a scientist who builds a machine that will take him to the year 802,701 – a world in which ape-like Morlocks are evolutionary descendants of humanity, and have regressed to a primitive lifestyle.  Because it described time travel solely to the future and back, The Time Machine did not involve any paradoxes.

The Time machine by H. G wells

In 1988, motivated by a request from Carl Sagan to provide scientific justification for the interstellar transportation used in his novel Contact, Caltech physicist Kip Thorne assigned his then-PhD student Michael Morris the task of constructing solutions of Einstein’s field equations of general relativity that offer traversable wormholes linking otherwise disconnected regions of the universe. In general relativity, mass and energy shape the fabric of the spacetime manifold. The greater the concentration of mass in a region, the more distorted space and time would become. While the technology to assemble enormous quantities of mass into wormholes is far beyond our present capabilities,and requires a hypothetical substance of negative mass, called exotic matter, the physics community took Morris and Thorne’s proposal seriously. There were a number of follow-up proposals, similarly published in scholarly journals.

In 1905, Albert Einstein wrote down his special theory of relativity that showed space and time are intimately linked, and in 1916, Einstein’s general theory of relativity showed that space and time are malleable β€” that is, they respond to the presence of matter or energy by warping, bending, expanding, and contracting. By extension, this means if one can imagine space being filled with some exotic form of energy, then space and time could warp in a way so that time, as well as space, could bend back upon themselves like circles, allowing one to move forward in a straight line and still return to one’s starting point in both space and time.
This was also a major develop in time travel studies.
In 1994, physicist Stephen hawking pointed out in his book “Black holes and baby universes “The best evidence we have that time travel is not possible, and never will be, is that we have not been invaded by hordes of tourists from the future.”. This was somewhat a setback into the study but that didn’t stop researchers from finding out more about the time machine.

James Webb telescope Launched on December 25, 2021 is the most recent development in space-time science, natizens have nicknamed it the time machine….

Terms used in Time Travel

time machine: A device for traveling backward in time.
gravitational time dilation: The slowing of the flow of time near a gravitating body.
Planck length: The Planck  length is the length scale below which space as we know it ceases to exist and becomes quantum foam.
spacetime: The four-dimensional “fabric” that results when space and time are unified.
spacetime diagram: A diagram with time plotted upward and space plotted horizontally.
spacetime curvature: The property of spacetime that causes freely falling particles that are initially moving along parallel world lines to subsequently move together or apart.
 Spacetime curvature: the  influences in the motion of massive bodies.
 wapping: Same as curvature of spacetime.
general relativity: Einstein’s laws of physics in which gravity is described by a curvature of spacetime.
wormhole: A “handle” in the topology of space, connecting two widely separated locations in our Universe.
Quantum Realm: an amalgamation of two different dimensions from the comics
special relativity: Einstein’s laws of physics in the absence of gravity.
singularity: A region of spacetime where spacetime curvature becomes so strong that the general relativity laws break down and the laws of quantum gravity take over.
 quantum mechanics: The laws of physics that govern the realm of the small Particles(atoms, molecules, electrons, protons).
curvature of space or spacetime: The property of space or spacetime that makes it violate Euclid’s or Minkowski’s notions of geometry; that is, the property that enables straight lines that are initially parallel to cross.
mouth: An entrance to a wormhole. There is a mouth at each of the two ends of the wormhole.
event: A point in spacetime; that is, a location in space at a specific moment of time.
field: Something that is distributed continuously and smoothly in space(electric field, the magnetic field, the curvature of spacetime, and a gravitational wave).
 gravitational wave: A ripple of spacetime curvature that travels with the speed of light.
hyperspace: A fictitious flat space in which one imagines pieces of our Universe’s curved space as embedded.
Newtonian laws of physics: The laws of physics, built on Newton’s conception of space and time as absolute, which were the centerpiece of 19th-century thinking about the Universe.
quantum gravity: The laws of physics that are obtained by merging general relativity with quantum mechanics.
time-warped field: A self-contained filed in which time rates within the field may be accelerated or decelerated relative to time rates outside of the field.
world line: The path of an object through spacetime or through a spacetime diagram.

Time Travel theories and equations

Wormhole

According to Albert Einstein’s famous equation, E = mcΒ² , time travel is possible, at least in one direction.

Proof from E=MCΒ² explained with worked examples

The equation that tells us by how much mass appears to increase due to speed is:

Where:

m = relativistic mass, i.e. mass at the speed it is travelling.

m0 = “rest mass”, i.e. mass of object when stationary.

v = speed of object.

c = speed of light.

Also note that the mass increase isn’t felt by the object itself, just as the time dilation of Special Relativity isn’t felt by the object. It’s only apparent to an external observer, hence it is “relative” and depends on the frame of reference used. To an external observer it appears that the faster the object moves the more energy is needed to move it. From this, an external, stationary observer will infer that because mass is a resistance to acceleration and the body is resisting being accelerated, the mass of the object has increased.

Kinetic EnergyNext, we need to look at the energy involved in very high speed movement. We have seen that as an object gets faster its mass appears to increase, and the more mass an object has the more energy is required to move it. The standard equation for the energy of movement (kinetic energy) is:

That is, kinetic energy is equal to half the mass multiplied by the velocity squared. This is often called Newtonian kinetic energy. Note that the velocity term is squared. This means, for example, that it takes far more than twice the energy to travel at twice any particular speed. We can see this by working through the equation for two values of v, where: v = 50 ms-1 and v = 100 ms-1 respectively, both with the same mass of 10 kg:

This equation is fine at low speeds,

From this equation we know that mass (m) and the speed of light (c) are related in some way. What happens if we set the speed (v) to be very low?

This equation seems to solve the problem. We can now predict the energy of a moving body and take into account the mass increase. What’s more, we can rearrange the equation to show that:

This result is fine for low speeds, but what about speeds closer to the speed of light? We know that mass increases at high speeds, but according to the Newtonian part of the equation that isn’t the case. Therefore, we need to replace the Newtonian part of the formula in order to make the equation correct at all speeds. How can we do this?We know that E – mc2 is approximately equal to the Newtonian kinetic energy when v is small, so we can use E – mc2 as the definition of relativistic kinetic energy:

We have now removed the Newtonian part of the equation. Note that we haven’t given a formula for relativistic kinetic energy. The reason for this will become apparent in a moment. Rearranging the result shows that:

It can now be seen that relativistic energy consists of two parts. The first part is kinetic and depends on the speed of the moving body, while the second part is due to the mass increase and does not depend on the speed of the body. However, both parts must be a form of energy, but what form? We can simplify the equation by setting the speed (i.e. the relativistic kinetic energy) of the moving body to be zero, thereby removing it from the equation:

We now have the famous equation in the form it’s most often seen in, but what does it mean?Einstein therefore concluded that mass and energy are really different manifestations of the same thing, i.e. that any mass is really tightly packed energy. At the time he saw no mechanism for releasing the energy from the mass, and was in fact sceptical of the idea that it could ever be achieved. This didn’t really matter to Einstein, however. As a theoretical physicist he was happy that his equations were consistent and he had a model to predict what happens to a body moving at very high speeds.

Time travel, possible or not?

Relativity theory says that time and space are linked together. Einstein also said our universe has a speed limit i.e nothing can travel faster than the speed of light (186,000 miles per second). according to this theory, the faster you travel, the slower you experience time. Scientists have done some experiments to show that this is true.

One of the experiments involved two clocks set to the exact same time. One clock stayed on Earth, while the other flew in an airplane, all planes moved in the same direction. After the airplane flew around the world, scientists compared the two clocks. The clock on the fast moving airplane was slightly behind the clock on the ground. So, the clock on the airplane was traveling slightly slower in time than 1 second per second.

“time travel is indeed a real thing. But it’s not quite what you’ve probably seen in the movies. Under certain conditions, it is possible to experience time passing at a different rate than 1 second per second”

Space place(NASA Science)

But we can’t use a time machine to travel hundreds of years into the past or future. Maybe this will be possible in many years to come.

Conclusions

We can go into the future. Time travel to the future is possible under Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But time travel to the past is impossible

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